The concept of glass blowing may seem like a modern concept due the fact that the glass blowing kits and glass blowing equipment that are used today, are somewhat complicated. In reality though, glass blowing has been around since the early days of the ancient Egyptians.

Although the methods that are used in the process of glass-making may not be as simple as bead-making for example, it was considered to be a revolutionary concept during the time of the Roman Empire.


It is widely believed that the first glass that was made was somewhere between 1200 BC and 800 BC. What’s even more tantalizing about this fact is that the concept of glass blowing was discovered by accident. Phoenician merchants who use to travel throughout the coast of the Mediterranean would periodically make rest stops before reaching their intended destinations. At the rest stop, they would build campfires, along the sandy patches of earth that was on their trade route. What they noticed was that after a long night of maintaining the camp fires, the sand had transformed into a hardened substance. This substance turned out to be glass.

After realizing this discovery, they eventually created a glass forming technique around 50 BC. Even today, in museums across the world, you can see artifacts, and ancient glass blowing kits, that are as a direct result of some of the earliest techniques that the Phoenician merchants originally invented.


One of the more interesting facts about the invention of glassblowing was that it coincided with the birth of the Roman Empire during the first century B.C. And as such, it was adopted by the Romans and served as an essential asset towards their endeavors of spreading its dominance. Glassblowing was favored by the Romans so much so, that it was greatly encouraged under Roman rule. Experts believe that as a result of this, the concept of glassblowing rapidly spread throughout the various regions that the Romans eventually conquered.

By this time, the art of glassblowing evolved from failed experimentation and simple designs into complex, multi-paneled glass vessels that varied in shapes, arrangements and motifs.

Medieval Ages

After the demise of the Roman Empire, during fifth century A.D., the tradition persevered throughout Europe from the medieval days, to the Middle ages and into the Renaissance. During the medieval period, the techniques that were used in glassblowing became even more sophisticated as the Franks, created an abundance of simple corrugated molds, claw decoration techniques and sophisticated glass blowing kits.

By the 17th century, glassblowing moved from being just a technique that was used to create water vessels and decorations, into flat glass and window panes. Once these were developed, the applicability of glassblowing spread throughout the world and was eventually adopted by distant nations such as Japan, China and the Islamic Lands.

Stephen Herring firmly believes that the process of utilizing glass blowing kits and glass blowing equipment for sophisticated and complex glassblowing patterns, is not only for a source of income but as a way of creating art in its purest form.

When looking back on your own school days what do you remember most? Maybe you remember choosing stationery at the end of August or the boredom of your least favourite lesson, or perhaps the memories that have stood the test of time involve school trips to exciting new places.

School trips can offer children a break from the classroom while teaching them the importance of respecting other cultures and the value of independence. They’ll also be able to engage in new topics which they may not have paid much attention to before.

However, due to health and safety concerns, it’s not unusual for children to miss out on school trips that actually pose very little risk. Many trips that could provide children with extremely rewarding and insightful experiences are not going ahead due to safety worries.

If you’re thinking of organising a school trip for your pupils, it’s important to ensure that certain health and safety measures are in place so that you can help parents to relax. They’re bound to be concerned, but by offering a trip that is well organised and planned out, you can prove that there is nothing to worry about.

Things to look out for

When planning a school trip, health and safety should of course be paramount. When investigating how safe the break is going to be, it’s often best to ask all the questions that you’d ask if you were going on a family holiday.

It’s usually best to use a specialist travel firm with experience in organising school trips, rather than planning everything yourself. This will save you time and money.

Health and Safety

If you do use a travel firm make sure they are STF members. The STF is a group of educational tour operators which only accepts members who  adhere to a rigorous Code of Practice and Safety Management Standards and are audited each year by Argent Health & Safety, the UK’s leading Health and Safety Consultancy specialising in Travel, to ensure continuing compliance.


Whether you’re planning on travelling by coach, train, plane or ferry, it’s important to find out as much as you can, because parents are likely to ask you for all the details. Planes are known for undergoing numerous health and safety checks before lifting off the ground, and coaches should be the same. The chosen coach supplier should comply with safety rules and codes of practice.

Accommodation and activities

The best thing about booking through a specialist travel company is that the firm is likely to have extensive experience working with particular hotels, restaurants, and tour guides at the destination of your choice. They’ve probably spent years building relationships with these people to ensure that they operate to very high standards and can cater for any special circumstances such as food allergies or disabilities.

The chosen accommodation should be child-friendly, balconies must be safe and working smoke alarms must be fitted.

Licences and awards


Make sure that the trip is protected by the ATOL scheme. This will mean that if the travel company stops operating during the trip, an ATOL certificate can help. Without one, alternative plans may need to be made to get home and this could cost a significant amount of money.


ABTA has been an industry leading travel association for over 60 years. By looking for the ABTA logo when planning school trips, you can be assured that you are booking with a reliable company. ABTA members must follow a strict code of conduct so that a high standard of service is provided.


When looking for a school trip organiser, the School Travel Forum (STF) is a great resource. It has a group of Assured Members who offer excellent trips that can help to broaden pupils’ horizons and improve their learning.


The Council for Learning Outside the Classroom is the national voice for school trips. The team believe that every young person should experience the world beyond the classroom. Schools keen to offer their pupils the opportunity to explore nature, history and different cultures in an engaging environment are eligible to apply for various awards from the LOtC. While not all great schools have an LOtC award, if you are keen to be recognised for your efforts to improving pupils’ learning through activities outside the classroom, this could be a great opportunity.

Put parents’ minds at ease

While it is vital that all school trips are health and safety checked to prevent any accidents, the actual chance of a child being seriously hurt on a trip with teachers and classmates is extremely rare. In fact, research suggests that children are less likely to get hurt while on a school trip than they are in school.

When sending permission slips to parents, you might want to specify which teachers are fully qualified first aiders. Knowing there are people on hand to act in the event of an emergency can help parents to relax.

Parents need to know that even though they aren’t on the trip themselves, they’re still in good hands. By providing parents with plenty of information about the trip provider, you can encourage them to let their children attend.


Anxiety attacks are very crippling and they can limit your freedom to do things and be who you want to be. They can happen anytime and for many different reasons, and they can be physically stressful. Someone who suffers from extreme stress, panic attacks, or generalized anxiety disorder would suffer from shortness of breath, nausea, chest pains, numbness, and palpitations. A single experience of a nervous breakdown can leave you weak and emotionally paralyzed for a long period of time.

If you have experienced a panic attack, you may find it hard to function normally in your day to day living. There will always be the fear of having an anxiety attack again. You can’t go to places that could trigger your panic disorder due to social anxiety. You may find yourself not performing well at your job or making excuses to get out of social gatherings. This could put your life, as well as the live of the people around you, in a miserable state. Knowing how to deal with panic attacks will lessen the chances of a nervous breakdown from happening to you—in time, you may even learn to cope with your generalized anxiety disorder and soon overcome it.

How to Deal with Panic Attacks

There are many ways on how to deal with anxiety. Some experts would recommend exercise, anxiety support groups, and stress management classes. However, these options may not work well if you have a busy schedule or if you are still not prepared to face other people and talk about your disorder. In cases like these, there are anti-anxiety medications you can take, as well as herbal remedies and supplements that you can drink to help you calm down.

However, anti-anxiety medications do not quite cure anxiety disorders—they just hide the symptoms, and they could also pose dangers to your health because some pills are addictive and have side effects. These anti-anxiety medications may also damage your kidney and liver. On the other hand, herbal remedies such as Chamomile tea, Valerian root, and St. John’s Wort are known to be the healthy alternatives to anti-anxiety medication. However, these only work if your panic disorder is mild.

Doctors would also suggest Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) or Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP) to help you overcome your social anxiety disorder. These are therapies that you could do to educate your mind to remain calm during situations that may trigger any nervous breakdown. NLP works effectively with hypnotherapy to bring back your worry-free lifestyle.

Hypnotherapy Audio CDs

Hypnotherapy works by tapping into your unconscious mind and changing your way of thinking. It has been known to cure phobias, improve performance, and even help smokers quit smoking. It can make you believe that you can do whatever you are afraid to do—it’s all in the mind.

However, not everyone who experiences panic attacks can go to a hypnotherapist personally on a regular basis. This is why the How to Deal with and Overcome Anxiety and Panic Attacks Hypnotherapy CD is a great help for anyone who has generalized anxiety disorder. All you have to do is to plug in your headset into your computer, play the CD, and listen with an open mind. Mark Bowden, the maker of the How to Deal with and Overcome Anxiety and Panic Attacks Hypnotherapy CD, says on his website that hypnotherapy won’t work if you are not willing to give it a chance.

If you aren’t sold on the idea of the How to Deal with and Overcome Anxiety and Panic Attacks Hypnotherapy CD to help you cope with your social anxiety, then you should know that hypnotherapy is a modern science. Mark Bowden, the maker of this audio CD, is a qualified NLP practitioner and has been studying hypnosis for more than 15 years.

The How to Deal with and Overcome Anxiety and Panic Attacks Hypnotherapy Audio CD will really help you if you want to know how to deal with panic attacks and lessen their occurrence in the future.

The iPhone has been the industry leader for several years, and is a very well built unit. It uses quality parts for its body, and quality electronic components which have made it the smart phone to beat for years. However, nothing’s perfect and there will be occasions where you need to get some iPhone repairs happening to repair anything that’s gone wrong.

Most iPhone repairs are relatively simple to find and solve. Each part of the phone is an entity unto itself, and whichever part goes wrong, it is a simple matter of taking the faulty part out and replacing it with a new functioning part.

For example, one of the most common problems people have is with shattered screens. It really doesn’t take a lot to smash an iPhone screen. Dropping it, bumping it, or even mishandling it can lead to a broken screen. But the good news is that you can get new replacement screens, and fit it yourself (with the help of instructions), or get a professional to do it for you.

One of the best places for iPhone repairs, as in source of parts and/or for fixing it is This company is the most reputable in the UK for all iPhone repairs. They are fully endorsed by Apple and have clients such as the BBC and O2.

The process for using them is simple. You start off by contacting iPhonefixed to establish the actual problem with your iPhone. Then, you can choose for them to send out the replacement part, and along with detailed instructions and supplied tools, you can fix it yourself. Alternatively, you can send you phone direct to them, and they will fix it for you.

Each method has its advantages. The fix it yourself method means you’ll get your phone up and running quicker because you only have to wait for the parts to arrive. Downside is if you are not that good with fixing things, you may ending causing more damage than you started with, even with following the directions.

The advantage with sending it in is that it will be handled by a professional who fixes iPhones all the time and you can be assured of a fully functioning phone upon receipt.

All parts and labour are guaranteed for a year, which makes this method of iPhone repairs one that you will be totally confident in.

Providing they have been well-trained, are matched with your target market and have been effectively orientated to your brand, promo girls can make all the difference between a disappointing exhibition experience and an exceptional one.

Here are some of the benefits of hiring promo girls:

Attract a broader consumer base

Exhibitions give businesses a chance to reach a broader consumer base than they would normally have access to. But so many businesses fall into the trap of thinking that booking your stand is enough to raise your profile.

Promo girls maximise the effectiveness of your exhibition presence by commanding attention and then using sophisticated communication techniques to pull in as many visitors as possible. The more visitors that interact with your stand, the more likely it is that you will secure valuable business or even kick off successful business ventures.

Extend your team

The best promo girls are not just there to look pretty in front of a camera (although they usually do). They are also a virtual extension to your sales team. As long as you brief them well, ensuring they have the answers to the most commonly asked questions about your products or services, you can let them mingle freely with visitors and trust them to break the ice with potential customers. A competent promo girl will know when it’s time to refer the prospect back to you or your employees for more information or to close a sale.

Enhance your brand

Promo girls can enhance your brand message providing you carefully select the girls and brief them well. Whether you want to come across as exciting and sexy, suave and sophisticated or young and trendy, a suitably attired promo girl can demonstrate those values in physical form. Not only will visitors to the exhibition come away with a strong and accurate idea of what you are all about, you will also be able to take photographs for your promotional literature that will send out the same message for many years to come.

Maximise ROI

Exhibition stands are expensive and every member of staff (including yourself) that attends has a cost attached. If you have to travel a large distance to the exhibition venue there are also fuel or public transport costs to cover. Professional promo girls can ensure that you maximise your impact during the exhibition and actually make the whole experience worthwhile. Promo girls can not only increase sales at the event itself, they can make introductions that lead to future sales and raise the profile of your brand – a less quantifiable but nevertheless powerful benefit to your business.

Kids suffering from conditions such as the Dyslexia or ADHD or ASD etc are faced with problems when they try to read or write. Also these children make mistakes in properly pronouncing words or phrases. Thus they need special training to be able to understand the components of the language better so that they can have a good grip over the language. The difficulties that are faced by the kids or the young adults due to any of these conditions can only be dealt with through proper training. The English Language Learner software from the Maxscholar trains the students to improve reading skills and drills the students in scientifically proven methods to help them in forming an idea about the letters and their pronunciations.

How can these learning program help?

The techniques that are learnt through these programs can also help the students in summarizing and taking notes and also with the other subjects. The learning program can be given to the students at school after the classes are over and also at home as well. It can be done on any computer and can be adapted to suit the different needs of the students. It is an interactive learning process which can be enjoyed thoroughly by the students and this makes the training process easy and fun. The package comes with all the necessary tools and materials for the teachers so that they can assist the student in their learning process and the students are also provided with instructions which they are required to follow to learn the basics of the English language better.

How do these software work?

The learning software actually is a form of mental exercise that is responsible for creating new mental pathways that are capable of retaining more information. The programs focus on the correct understanding and the pronunciation of each and every letter of the alphabet, blends etc. Also it includes handwriting programs which is an essential part of reading. The students can speak out loud each and every letter so that their pronunciations are clear to them.

The fun games allow the kids to retain and remember everything they have been taught more efficiently. The students who have taken this program after their classes have shown significant improvements in their results. Their grades have improved and they have moved up by two levels. These students have been given the training everyday for 2.5 hours and in about 90 days they have shown significant improvement in their skills.

Playing online Sudoku is a very effective way of time passing. To some it is a fun game whereas to others it is a hobby. Solving the number problems can get very interesting and challenging. Solving Sudoku puzzles improve the reasoning qualities of an individual as well. The amount of reasoning activities that goes into solving a Sudoku puzzle can help improve the logical sense of an individual to a considerable extent. Though it is all about numbers it has nothing to do with mathematics and is rather based on logic and reasoning. It has different levels and the game gets difficult with the ascending levels. It also serves as a form of a brain exercise. For playing Sudoku on internet, you can refer this website for more info

Keep your mind sharp by playing Sudoku

Playing Sudoku helps in improving the cognitive activities of the mind. Thus many elderly people engage themselves in this brain storming puzzles to keep their minds sharp. Sudoku has also been proved to reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease in the elderly people. In children too Sudoku betters the decision making qualities, train their brains and also keep their brains active. This number game also helps entrepreneurs and businessmen train their brains and improve their problem solving abilities.

How does the game work?

The game is composed of grids and numbers. It is arranged in 9×9 grids and 3×3 squares. Some boxes are filled with digits whereas as some others have been left empty. The player is required to put the most logical numbers in the empty boxes so that it remains in conformity with the order of the numbers. A particular number or a digit should not be repeated in one line. The rows and the columns are arranged from 1 to 9 and the player has to fill the blank boxes with the missing numbers in a way so that it is not repeated either in it’s vertical arrangement or horizontal arrangement.

The Internet Sudoku is a website that allows users to play Sudoku online for absolutely free. The player can ascend gradually to the more complicated steps. All the games are free and can be played on a smartphone, computer or tablet. Sudoku is an interesting game which might seem difficult at the beginning but once it sinks in it can get very addictive but in a good way. Everyone from the children to the elderly people can benefit from playing the game in more than one ways.

The building industry is changing every now and then and the number of finishes that you can have in you construction have over time skyrocketed. However, not all of them are applicable to your driveway. You want something that will give the exterior viewer a taste of how good the interior is. One of the best options you have for this is patterned concrete driveways and there are a variety of reasons as to why this could be the best option for you and even your driveway and while some are very obvious, there are some that you didn’t know that might help you see the light.

Obviously you understand that this is among the more attractive finishes that you can have in your drive way. Patterned concrete has a great variety of different designs and patterns that you can incorporated in your driveway that will offer you a great finish and one that is also durable.

There are a number of other finishes that are great but can be quite costly. These include the stamped tile but these can be staggeringly expensive. However, if you’re looking to get the same quality finish but at a bargain and one that is more durable, then patterned concrete could be your best bet by any chance without a doubt. Additionally, it is easier to have installed and the materials are more readily available.

Aside from the fact that it is easy to install especially if done by a professional and that it has very good results, patterned concrete has a lower maintenance cost and requires very little care. As such after you have had it installed and given it its due curing period which is about five days, you can start experiencing the beauty with little or nothing to worry about.

While there is so much you can enjoy from patterned concrete you have to realise that as much as many people might convince you that you don’t have to call in the professionals to get the job done, you should have some reservations if you want to get the possible results. Here is why you should have professionals come and do the stamping for you.

  • It requires a base that is very well compacted with sand and gravel and while this might seem easy, the moment you start, you find out that it is not as easy to get a level ground and you will need some machinery which might be quite costly.
  • Truth be told, it is not easy work and doing this alone will make it even harder for you.
  • You will need some special tools to smoothen the surface among other things. However, while the cost might be the first worry, operating these tools requires a person that understands and knows how to use them.
  • Concrete starts drying up very quickly and when this starts to happen, it becomes very hard to stamp and as such you must understand how to manipulate the cement fast and efficiently.
  • A mistake on cement is not rectifiable. You get only one chance to do things right and no one wants to take such a risk.

If you’re looking to improve the look of your driveway and at the same time save yourself some money, patterned concrete driveway is a great idea and now you know why it should be your preferred. Additionally, you also get why calling people who understand this business is important.

Acupuncture Just How To Lower Daily Anxiety with Alternative Healing Therapies

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Could you actually avoid by evaluating the potency of a secure, tested alternate treatment, intensively used for hundreds of years throughout the World of strengthening your condition the chance? Acupuncture is an old type of hugely beneficial body excitement, executed first identified and enhanced in 198 BCE in China. Since the period in time, it has been constantly increased to create desire to countless patients struggling with back, neck, leg or brain discomfort and numerous other issues. These days, acupuncture is even associated with a quick, trouble-free storage stimulation process and fat loss. It goes without stating this fantastic substitute therapy enables pressure that is daily to be reduced by people in a pain free method. Does your small routine end you from evaluating the results of a useful acupuncture session? You can now quickly take advantage of this special sensorial experience inside the comfort of your own property, by getting an inexpensive DIY acupuncture package. It comes with instructions also it can be used by everyone. The Oriental healing solution has made into a property that was accessible, effective, enabling people to treat their painful situations without departing their homes and, most of all, without splitting the lender to see indications of improvement.

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